Turtles are omnivorous, and most of them are suitable for living in a city apartment. But the future owner in any case needs to take an interest in the former living conditions of the turtle. what terrain she lived in, what are the favorable environmental conditions for her, what was her appearance in the world: in a terrarium or in free conditions, what does the proximity of water mean for her. With the acquisition of a pet from the owner, the question necessarily arises of its feeding. The diet of sea and land turtles, which, in turn, are divided into water and land, is different. Consider what the turtles eat in nature and at home.
What do land turtles eat at home
As a rule, a land turtle that feeds on vegetation is a pet. In natural conditions, she eats grass, found vegetables and fruits. At home, such a tortoise can offer apples, carrots, cabbage, as well as meat, cottage cheese and eggs, but the basis of its nutrition should be plant foods. In the spring it is advisable to feed it with fresh grass. Clover, dandelions, plantain, coltsfoot, lawn grass. the vegetation that land turtles enjoy eating.
Young water turtles hunt under water, their usual food is tadpoles, fish, insects. Water turtles can be fed fish, meat, liver, eggs, give them insects, algae, and, of course, do not forget about vegetables with fruits. You can include concentrated food for fish, beetles, earthworms, powdery mildews, cockroaches, bloodworms, tubule mumps, gammarus, aquarium fish in the menu.
Marsh turtle. a species of freshwater turtles, spends most of the time on land, but likes to plunge into cool water during the hot season. Her main feed. berries.
What does a sea turtle eat?
About five species of turtles live in the sea. Their food is a variety of marine herbs and fish, except limnophilic algae and elodea. Green turtles eat plants zoster and thalassia, leathery. they eat jellyfish, crustaceans, ctenophores, mollusks, young fish, and predators Riedley, Loggerheads and Bissa catch crabs, mollusks and invertebrates. Although green sea turtles feed on plankton, they eat meat with the same pleasure. Only with age do they switch to fruits and vegetables.
How to feed a turtle
In the wild, the diet of land turtles consists of roughage. bitter herbs, seeds and fruits, which does not closely resemble everyday human food. This animal can do without food for several weeks, but young turtles need to be fed every day, and adults. 2-3 times a week, preferably in the same place, laying out food on a piece of paper. Favorable temperature of the water while feeding the turtle. 30 degrees: her digestion is stimulated. The tortoise will get used to its corner and will appear there when it has hunger. How to understand if a turtle is hungry? She walks around the aquarium or terrarium, looking for something edible. After feeding, it is not advisable to leave food in the terrarium for more than two hours, as the turtle becomes moody if it does not feel hunger. If the pet does not eat for a long time, this may indicate a disease.
- Ideal for a turtle, if 70% of its feed is vegetables and herbs, 25%. fruits, and 5%. protein, vitamins and minerals. The main component can be juicy lettuce or young cabbage, apples, carrots. Land turtles do not need animal food. For 1 kg of pet weight, 80 g of feed is needed.
- Raw protein, cottage cheese, dry yeast, bran, minced meat, boiled eggs are suitable as protein foods.
- Minerals the turtle needs: borogluconate, glycerophosphate, carbonate, calcium palmitate. She can be given bone meal, as well as crushed eggshell powder 100 mg for every kilogram of weight.
- Vitamins should be given no more than once a week.
What is not recommended to feed turtles
- Not recommended: brown bread, milk, porridge, dry or liquid animal feed, citrus peel, grains and seeds of fruit, medicinal, solanaceous, buttercup, cruciferous (except cabbage) and some houseplants are dangerous for it. Azalea, Dieffenbachia, Juhorbia.
- You should limit sweet fruits, cherries, grapes, cucumbers, onions, garlic and herbs.
- Food should not be monotonous, for example, only meat. With this diet, turtles can suffer serious illnesses.
Under natural conditions, turtles can take care of themselves, if they become our pets, feed them correctly. our duty with you.
Sea turtles are a reptile family of turtles that includes 5 genera.
Turtles live in the warm waters of the Indian and Pacific Ocean, as well as in the Atlantic. These animals are tireless swimmers who spend their whole lives in water. On the shore, turtles are slow and go there only for laying eggs.
Small turtles, lost in the vast waters of the ocean, choose the place to continue the genus of sea turtles. However, animals unmistakably find pieces of land, swimming huge distances. Scientists have put forward many hypotheses that comment on how you can perfectly navigate in the water. One hypothesis is that sea turtles can use the earth’s magnetic field for orientation.
Structural features and sizes of turtles
All sea turtles are fairly large creatures. The largest in the family is a green sea turtle, whose body length is 1.5 meters, and it weighs from 80 to 190 kg.
The length of the shell of such a turtle is 80-120 cm. There are very large representatives of this family, whose weight exceeds 300 kg. The largest tortoise, which scientists were able to measure, had a shell length of 153 cm and weighed 395 kg. Small representatives of this family also live in nature.
Sea turtles are large reptiles.
The smallest turtle is the Ridley Sea Olive Turtle. This unhurried creature weighs no more than 50 kg, and the length of the shell is 60-70 cm. Females usually weigh less – 25-48 kg. The weight of the heaviest representatives of this type of male does not exceed 35 kg. The remaining species of sea turtles in size are between these two species. What unites all members of the family is that the limbs in the form of fins and the head do not retract under the shell.
The dorsal-ventral carapace of large sea turtles is flat. Developed much better than the hind legs, the front legs are flippers. The head of the turtle is large, sitting on a short neck. The head is not drawn into the shell, like the limbs. The shell of the sea turtle, called "Karapaks", has a bone base and is covered with horny shields. The color of the shell is different – black, light brown, greenish.
Nutrition, situation with numbers
Small sea turtles feed on zooplankton and small nekton, while adult turtles prefer plant food. Despite the fact that during the breeding season these animals migrate far into the ocean, the main habitat is in the coastal zone.
Sea turtles are omnivores.
At a depth of ten meters, the sea turtle finds a variety of plant foods. In addition to various algae, the diet of turtles includes mollusks and jellyfish. Sea turtles attack those inhabitants of coastal waters who are even slower than themselves. For relaxation, this species chooses sea caves.
Since ancient times, man has been the main fighter of sea turtles. People have always had a huge commercial interest in these leisurely inhabitants of the deep sea because of their delicious meat. The eggs of sea turtles were considered a delicacy and a huge number of clutches were destroyed.
All this, along with the low survival rate of young animals, led to a sharp decrease in the population of these unique armored animals. Currently, there is a ban on hunting for sea turtles, however, this law is difficult to control in large ocean spaces. In this regard, the population of sea turtles is not high and leaves much to be desired.
Reproduction and longevity
Young individuals of sea turtles reach puberty by 25-30 years. All the time before the breeding season begins, turtles swim in the salty sea. But in the year of nesting, sea turtles that have reached adulthood rush to that piece of land where they once hatched from an egg.
Having reached small islands scattered in the ocean, turtles mate near the coast. Then the females begin to prepare nests. They crawl ashore and with their hind legs dig sand. Pit-nests come out, about 40-50 cm deep. There the female lays eggs.
Sea turtles are centenarians.
The number of eggs in one clutch can be up to 200 pieces. Having laid eggs, the female buries the nest and carefully rams it so that the hole looks as inconspicuous as possible. For a year of nesting, the female makes 5-7 egg laying. The next breeding period will come only after 3-4 years.
After the female sea turtle lays eggs, she leaves to plow the sea and does not care about offspring at all. What will happen to the masonry does not interest her. The period of development of tortoise cubs in the egg occurs within 2 months. Moreover, the floor of the hatched turtles depends on the ambient temperature.
If the temperature was quite low, males are born. At higher air temperatures, females hatch from eggs. But if the temperature difference is too sharp, the masonry may die completely.
The eggshells of the bug are pierced with the so-called egg tooth. The baby turtles that were born rake the sand and get out of the nest pit. Here comes the most dangerous period of life. They are hunted both on land and in water, and from the air. As a result, a very small number of reptiles of this species survive to adulthood. But if the small cub of the turtle still managed to survive, its life span could be 80 years.
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In vain, many people believe that turtles living at home are somewhat different from other pets, just people know little about the features of their maintenance and care, as well as how these wonderful pets are fed with turtles.
The red-eared turtle (marine or African decorative) has a slightly greenish or dark brown carapace, on the head behind her eyes are red stripes of ears, and between the legs there are membranes.
The marsh turtle has a brown or black shell, sometimes strewn with yellow spots or small dashes, the skin of such a turtle is dark, with yellow dots
Funny tortoise trionics. soft-bodied with light beige carapace in adults, and dark beige. in babies. Surprisingly, the shell of this turtle is covered with skin (for which she received the name), and instead of her nose she has a small proboscis. This is not all its amazing features. the trionix has a long neck and has webbed feet and sharp white claws. The turtle’s temper is, say, not very friendly, rather aggressive, and she prefers loneliness, so you need to keep it in a single copy. Adult turtles can reach 30 centimeters, and they live up to 40 years, although a marsh turtle is considered among them centenarians. she can live in good conditions for about 70 years.
How to feed a turtle
In order to create a comfortable and “happy” life for turtles, they must be properly fed, and since they are properly fed, this means not only how, but how to do it. The whole difficulty is that you need to teach a turtle to eat on the shore, that is, it must understand that in order to eat, it must go ashore.
Another problem is that most of the food that is offered to deaf-eared friends is bloodworms, meat and squids only contain the amount of protein necessary for tortillas. Manufactured granular feed in the factory can also contain the right amount of fats, proteins and vitamins. However, all types of food do not contain the amount of calcium, which is so necessary for all turtles. They solve this problem in two ways, at the same time the question of how to feed a domestic turtle.
First of all, you need to start luring the turtle ashore. First, the food is placed on an inclined shore at the water’s edge. Gradually, putting the food diluted with a small amount of water in a small saucer, it begins to move away from the water at an increasing distance. The turtle begins to realize that in order to eat, it must crawl out onto land.
Turtles are also fed on the shore in a different way, planting them in any small container with water. In this case, it is very convenient to pour calcium salts and vitamins in the form of a powder onto the feed.
The fact that turtles love to eat in water, and only in the "native" house. Aquarium, known to all owners, but this type of feeding has many significant drawbacks. Food, especially of animal origin, instantly deteriorates in water, and not only clogs water, but also destroys biofilters.
If you still can’t train the turtle, eat outside the aquarium, then you must adhere to a certain rule, namely. remove food residues from the water 30 minutes after the start of feeding (usually this time is enough for the tortoise to get enough).
What do domestic turtles eat?
One way to feed the tortoise land so that it receives the necessary amount of calcium is to add small, low-fat fish with bones to it, to feed periodically live aquarium snails, such as Ampularia spp., Or land snails. Helix aspersa. Despite their small size, turtles can eat a whole small aquarium fish, such as guppies. In addition, in order to increase the amount of calcium, turtles are fed thawed fish, cut into small pieces. It is best to feed perch fish (herring and mackerel. Undesirable). In large specimens of fish, large bones must be removed, and the remaining fillet together with vertebral bones should be cut and given with other food. Too oily fish, for example, capelin, sprat, sprat, herring, it is best to keep it in hot water for some time before feeding (80 ° C. 2 minutes). The owners of turtles should know, if the question arises, how to feed the red-eared turtles, then the meat. This is the most improper food of all types. This type of food is fraught with the development of all varieties of turtles, rickets and hypovitaminosis A. Meat is allowed to be added a little to the “right” food for those turtles that grew on a granular factory food, because some of its species lack protein. And one more thing tortilla owners should know. if you train a turtle to raw meat, then they will not want to take another feed, and this is very harmful to their health.
In addition to the constantly necessary food, turtles need to be given various goodies (naturally, in their understanding). As a rule, turtles of all species are very fond of live special food. earthworms, bloodworms, pipe makers, carriage. Young turtles are very fond of such additives, moreover, it is very useful and necessary for them, especially after fasting, which can be associated with illness or hibernation (in winter turtles can sleep from 10 weeks to 5 months, it all depends on the size of the individual).
They love turtles and squid and shrimp meat, they also like (moreover, useful) raw liver. This, of course, is not the main type of food, but if you add liver to the food at least once a week, then you can not give vitamins.
Some conscientious and scrupulous owners of turtles with their own hands prepare for them a common treat, useful and tasty for tortillas. This is a feed mixture prepared on the basis of ordinary edible gelatin or its vegetable substitute. agar agar. This will allow not only to solve the problem of how to feed aquatic turtles, but also to diversify the tortoise menu with useful and nutritious food, which will include vitamins and minerals.
The mixture consists of cabbage (50 g), carrots (70 g), apples (50 g), fish fillet (145 g), raw eggs (2 pcs.), Squid fillet (100 g), milk (150 ml). The base, consisting of gelatin dissolved in water (30 g / 150 ml), is added to the whole prepared mixture and 20 drops of Tetravita, 10 tablets of calcium glycerophosphate.
Prepare in the following sequence. First, warm water is poured into the gelatin, after its swelling, it is brought to steam by dissolution. Grind all the harvested products in a meat grinder and mix. Vitamins and detailed glycerophosphate tablets are added to the mixture after its temperature drops to 25-30 ° C. Then, the mixture is again mixed and put in the refrigerator. Before feeding, the finished mixture is cut into small cubes and allowed to warm to the optimum room temperature. The amount of food received is enough for ten feedings for one adult turtle. In the same mixture, crushed drugs can be easily added in case of illness.
Some important tips
As they get older, turtles begin to consume more and more plant-based food, and the owners of these amazing ancient tortillas should take this into account. If algae were planted in the aquarium, then turtles, unfortunately, will quickly eat them. So in the form of constant food, they need to give more and more vegetable feed, such as algae and duckweed from real water bodies, elodea, edogonium, water rape, and also, lettuce, young cabbage.
Small and young turtles are eaten up to two years old every day, and adults can be fed once every 3 days, but it is very plentiful (this also applies to “youth”), since turtles are big “gourmets” and prefer to eat tasty, tight and a lot.
And, last, proper and balanced nutrition of the turtle. this is the main factor in their healthy and long life. All the food that the turtle consumes must be fresh and of high quality. And yet, turtles will not consume food from the refrigerator, they do not eat anything cold, so, before feeding, you need to get everything out of the refrigerator in advance and allow the feed to warm to room temperature (or slightly warm).