Do Computer Components Form Before System Assembly
Computer science and ICT lesson in 11th grade
on the topic “Modeling as a method of cognition. A systematic approach to modeling. Forms representations of models
To introduce the following concepts: model, modeling, object;
To form a holistic perception of the world;
To form cognitive interest of schoolchildren.
1. Organizational moment
(Slide 1) Humanity in its activities is constantly creating and using models of the world. (slide 2) It is impossible to formulate strict rules for constructing models, but humanity has accumulated rich experience in modeling various objects and processes. (Slide 3)
Models present in a visual form objects and processes inaccessible to direct perception (very large or very small). Visual models are very often used in training. In the course of geography, we get the first ideas about our land when studying its model. globe, in a course in physics, we study the operation of an internal combustion engine according to its model, in chemistry, in the study of the construction of matter, a model of molecules and crystal lattices is used. In biology, we study the structure of a person by anatomical imitations, etc. (Slide 4)
Models have an extremely important role in the design and creation of various technical devices, machines and mechanisms, buildings and electrical circuits, etc. without a pre-created drawing it is impossible to make even a simple part, not to mention a car. (Slide 5)
In the process of designing buildings and structures, in addition to drawings, models are often made. In the process of developing aircraft, the behavior of their models in air currents is investigated in a wind tunnel. The development of electrical circuits necessarily precedes the creation of electrical circuits. (Slide 6)
The development of science is impossible without the creation of theoretical models (theories, laws, hypotheses, etc.) that reflect the structure, properties and behavior of real objects. The creation of new theoretical models sometimes radically changes the concept of humanity about the world around it. (Slide 7)
The truth of theoretical models, i.e. their compliance with the laws of the real world is verified through experiments and experiments.
All artistic creation is the process of creating models. For example, a literary genre such as a fable transfers real relationships between people to relationships between animals and creates models of human relationships. over, almost any literary work can be considered as a model of real human life. Models, in an artistic form reflecting reality, are also paintings, sculptures, theatrical productions, etc. (Slide 8)
Modeling. it is a method of cognition consisting in the creation and study of models. (Slide 9)
Each object has a large number of different properties. In the process of building models, the main properties that are most important for the study are identified. In the process of studying the aerodynamic qualities of an airplane model in a wind tunnel, it is important that the model be geometrically similar to the original, but not important, for example, its color.
When building electrical circuits. models of electrical circuits. it is necessary to take into account the order of connecting the circuit elements to each other, but it does not matter their geometric location relative to each other, etc.
Different sciences study objects and processes from different angles of view and build different types of models. In physics, the processes of interaction and change of objects in chemistry are studied. their chemical composition, in biology. structure and behavior of living organisms, etc.
Let’s consider how people are studied in different sciences and in different models.
In the framework of mechanics, it can be considered as a material point. In chemistry. as an object consisting of various chemicals in biology. as a system tending to self-preservation, etc. (Slide 10)
Model. this is such a new object that reflects the properties of the object, phenomenon or process that are significant from the point of view of the purpose of the study. (Slide 11)
No model can replace the object itself. But when solving a specific problem, when we are interested in certain properties of the studied object, the model is useful, and sometimes the only research tool.
3. Learning New Material
The world around us consists of many different objects, each of which has various properties, and at the same time, the objects interact with each other.
For example, the planets of the solar system have various properties (mass, size, etc.) and, according to the law of universal gravitation, interact with the Sun and with each other.
Planets are part of a larger object. The solar system, and the solar system. as part of our Milky Way galaxy. At the same time, planets consist of atoms of various chemical elements, and atoms of elementary particles. (Slide 12)
We can conclude that almost every object consists of other objects, i.e. is a system.
A system consists of objects called system elements. (Slide 13)
An important feature of the system is its holistic functioning. A system is not a collection of individual elements, but a collection of interconnected elements. For example, a computer is a system consisting of various devices, while the devices are interconnected both hardware (physically connected to each other) and functionally (information is exchanged). (Slide 14)
Any system exists in space and in time. At every moment in time, the system is in a certain state, which is characterized by the composition of the elements, the values of their properties, the magnitude and nature of the interaction between the elements, etc.
So, the state of the solar system at any time is characterized by the composition of its constituent objects (the sun, planets), their properties (sizes, position), the magnitude and nature of the interaction between themselves (gravitational forces).
Models that describe the state of a system at a particular point in time are called statistical information models. (slide 15).
In physics, examples of such models are those that describe simple mechanisms in biology. models of the structure of plants and animals; in chemistry, models of the structure of molecules and crystal lattices. (Slide 16)
The states of systems change over time, i.e. processes of change and development of systems occur. So, the planets move, their position relative to the Sun and each other changes, the Sun, like any other star, develops, its chemical composition, radiation, etc. change.
Models that describe the processes of change in the development of systems are called dynamic models. (slide 17)
In physics, such models describe the motion of bodies, in biology. the development of organisms or animal populations in chemistry. processes of chemical reactions, etc.
Can an object have multiple models? Give an example.
Can different objects be described by the same model? Example.
Do computer components form a system: before assembly? After assembly? After turning on the computer?
5. Practical work at the computer
Textbook N.D. Ugrinovich: paragraph 2.2. 2.3 In the notebook answer the questions at the end of the par. Sketch 5 different models of the same object.